1. Read the passage and answer the questions A and B. [Unit–12; Lesson–2(1)]
Conflict can be described as a disagreement among groups or individuals characterized by antagonism and hostility. This is usually fueled by the opposition of one party to another in an attempt to reach an objective different from that of the other party. The elements involved in the conflict have varied sets of principles and values, thus allowing a conflict to arise.
Conflict can be defined in many ways but one of the simplest is that it pertains to the opposing ideas and actions of different entities, resulting in an antagonistic state. Conflict is an inevitable part of life. All of us possess our own opinions, ideas and sets of beliefs. We have our own ways of looking at things and we act according to what we think is proper. Hence, we often find ourselves in conflict in different scenarios; it may involve other individuals, groups of people, or a struggle within our own selves. Consequently, conflict influences our actions and decisions in one way or another.
Conflict comes naturally; the clashing of thoughts and ideas is a part of the human experience. It is true that it can be destructive if left uncontrolled. However, it shouldn’t be seen as something that can only cause negative things to transpire. It is a way to come up with more meaningful realizations that can certainly be helpful to the individuals involved.
A. Choose the correct answer from the alternatives.
(a) The word ‘antagonism’ in the first paragraph refers to ——.
(i) a very friendly relationship (ii) feelings of good faith
(iii) feelings of amicable relationship (iv) a strong feeling of dislike or hatred
(b) —— are influenced by conflict.
(i) Our behaviour (ii) Our actions
(iii) Our actions and decisions (iv) Our daily activities
(c) What could be the closest meaning for ‘fueled by’ in the second sentence?
(i) added by (ii) supported by (iii) fired by (iv) increased by
(d) ‘Hence’ is a/an ——.
(i) adjective (ii) preposition (iii) noun (iv) adverb
(e) What is the main purpose of the author of this passage?
(i) to show the merits of conflict (ii) to show demerits of conflict
(iii) to inform about conflict (iv) to show antagonism
B. Answer the following questions.
(a) Mention three causes of conflict.
(b) What does the expression ‘conflict comes naturally’ mean?
(c) What will happen if the conflict is left uncontrolled?
(d) How can we live harmoniously despite conflict?
(e) “The clashing of thoughts and ideas is a part of the human experience.” Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
3. Write a summary of the following text. [Unit–10; Lesson–3(2)]
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed : “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of ‘interposition’ and ‘nullification’, that one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
5. Fill in the blanks with appropriate word in each gap.
Sports are a popular form of (a) ——. Many international (b) —— events are organized from time to time. Most of these events are (c) —— by multinational manufacturing companies and business firms. They (d) —— for the sport events in exchange for the right to (e) —— their products during those events. These events are (f) —— worldwide by satellite and people all (g) —— the world watch them (h) ——. As a result, the sponsors’ products receive maximum media (i) —— thus giving companies international (j) ——.
6. Rearrange the following sentences to make a coherent order.
(a) Alexander asked him how he would like to be treated.
(b) Alexander, the king of Macedon, crossed the Khyber Pass and reached India.
(c) Porus came forward with his men and arms in order to defend his land from the attack of Alexander.
(d) There ruled a king named Porus.
(e) He knew how to respect a bold man.
(f) Then he came to the plain of the Punjab.
(g) Alexander was pleased with Porus for his bold reply.
(h) He was brought before Alexander.
(i) “Like a king,” was the reply of Porus.
(j) But unfortunately he was defeated in a battle and taken prisoner.