1. Read the passage and answer the questions A and B.
Bangladesh is blessed with huge inland open water resources. It has numerous river, canals, beels, lakes, and vast areas of floodplains. Hakaluki haor is one of the major wetlands of Bangladesh. With a land area of 18,386 hectares, it supports a rich biodiversity and provides direct and indirect livelihood benefits to nearly 190,000 people. This haor was declared an Ecologically Critical Area in April 1999 by the Government of Bangladesh.
Hakaluki Haor is bounded by the Kushiara river as well as a part of the Sonai-Bardal river to the north, by the Fenchuganj-Kulaura railway to the west and to the south, and by the Kulaura-Beanibazar road to the east. The haor falls under two administrative districts, Maulvibazar and Sylhet. Some 190,000 people live in the area surrounding the haor. Hakaluki Haor is an important source of fisheries resources for Bangladesh.
Kalibaus, Boal, Rui, Ghagot, Pabda and Chapila are the main fish species found here. From the Kushiara there are frequent upstream movement of fish towards the beels and tributaries of Hakaluki. The beels in Hakaluki Haor provide winter shelter for the mother fisheries. In early monsoon these mother fisheries produce millions of fries for the entire downstream fishing communities. Floodplains are also an important source of fisheries resources within the area. However, many of the beels have lost their capacity to provide shelter for mother fisheries because of sand deposits from upstream rivers and canals, use of complete dewatering technique for fishing and lack of aquatic plants to provide feed and shelter for parent fish. The haor is a very important resting place for migratory waterfowls flying in from the north. The most interesting species is the Barheaded Goose, which is not hardly seen in fresh water wetlands. Many other important species of waterfowls make the Haor their temporary home.
Unfortunately, illegal poaching has been a threat to the waterfowl population in this vast wetland. Hakaluki Haor is known as a good grazing land in winter. People from villages around the Haor and also from distant areas send their herds for grazing. During this time, herders make temporary shelters near the beels and graze their animals for a period of 4–5 months. The Haor had very dense swamp forests in the past, but deforestation and a lack of conservation practices have virtually destroyed this unique forest in the last two decades.
A. Choose the correct answer from the alternatives.
(a) The word ‘conservation’ means ——.
(i) congregation (ii) satisfaction (iii) preservation (iv) consolation
(b) What do you mean by ‘biodiversity’?
(i) variety of plant and animal life in a habitat
(ii) diversity of living beings in various places
(iii) biological diversity of man
(iv) various plants and animals in various places
(c) What is the closest opposite meaning of the word ‘wetlands’?
(i) swamps (ii) marshy lands (iii) deserts (iv) boggy lands
(d) The word ‘inland’ means ——.
(i) frontier (ii) frontal land
(iii) outside of a country (iv) boondocks
(e) The phrase ‘dewatering technique’ means ——.
(i) water supply (ii) draining water (iii) fulfilling water (iv) demand of water
B. Answer the following questions.
(a) Why was Hakaluki Haor declared an Ecologically Critical Area?
(b) Do you think Hakaluki Haor is an important source of fisheries? If yes, why?
(c) What are the functions of ‘mother fisheries’?
(d) What does ‘dewatering technique’ stand for?
(e) How is waterfowl population threatened?
3. Write a summary of the following poem in about 60 words.
O father and mother if buds are nipped,
And blossoms blown away;
And if the tender plants are stripped
Of their joy in the springing day,
By sorrow and care’s dismay,—
How shall the summer arise in joy,
Or the summer fruits appear?
Or how shall we gather what griefs destroy,
Or bless the mellowing year,
When the blasts of winter appear?